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  • 서울출장샵⊕예약ヤ서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울렉시벨 마사지》☵〈서울렉시벨 마사지〉♚서울갑상선 마사지U서울안마방 야간┹서울순천 마사지⇂서울봉천 안마방➳서울텀블러 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    천안출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    서울출장샵♐예약░서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울안마방 2:1》☏〈서울아로마 마사지 부작용〉☆서울여주 안마방►서울부평 마사지◤서울베트남 마사지 야동↨서울고등학생 안마방▧서울커플 마사지 tumblr

    The governments of more than 190 nations 영월마사지 동영상 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    서울출장샵◙예약금없는출장샵⇥서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울안마방 porn》♤〈서울중국 대딸〉•서울안마방 성병┰서울족저근막염 마사지▧서울안면 비대칭 마사지☈서울조건 카톡◁서울콜걸강추

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    서울출장샵☞출장부르는법┘서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울목포 여관》▧〈서울군포 안마방〉↾서울마사지 도구➼서울지행 안마방╭서울항문 마사지☪서울대전복합터미널 마사지┢서울대구 동대구역 모텔

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

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    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 하남대구 출장마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    서울출장샵☒출장부르는법┦서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울마사지 간판구분》╄〈서울토렌트 마사지〉▩서울서양 마사지☢서울부산역 모텔 추천✐서울중동 안마방✐서울서울출장안마웃서울덕계 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 울산출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    서울출장샵⇜예약⇥서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울안마방 카드결제》큐〈서울출장색시미녀언니〉✎서울흥출장안마☭서울모유수유 마사지☎서울안마방 질내사정┪서울텀블러 마사지ρ서울모텔 콜

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 순창가경동 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 진주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    진주출장안마
    철원구의역 마사지 온라인카지노 진해카오산로드 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 부산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    서울출장샵✍예약금없는출장샵┧서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울안마방 반말》◄〈서울신림 모텔〉⇛서울정준하 마사지◦서울국노⇜서울옥계 마사지☀서울마사지 품번↺서울부산 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 안양부산 출장안마 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

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    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    대전여자 안마방
    태백안마방 무한샷 포항출장샵 군포출장마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

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    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장안마 .

    서울출장샵➽예약▤서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울연신내 안마방》█〈서울신사역 마사지〉➢서울수원 마사지 추천★서울전화 tumblrエ서울코 마사지 전후μ서울보령 마사지↿서울생리통 완화 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 봉화군산 모텔 가격 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

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    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    서울출장샵⇔24시출장샵↕서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울동인천 마사지》×〈서울이영학 안마방〉┱서울출장서비스┘서울중국 대딸┟서울경동맥 마사지↧서울세종 마사지☄서울안마방 ssul

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 동해안마방 국산 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 전주안마방 서비스 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대전출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

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    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, jtvx.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 서울출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 울산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    서울출장샵ヨ예약◆서울둔산동 엘 마사지《서울대전 출장》☂〈서울강남 전립선 마사지〉◘서울여수 마사지ワ서울출장샵예약➨서울경주 마사지✡서울건대 마사지↕서울동네 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    장흥아주동 마사지
    부산출장샵 정읍상봉역 안마방 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

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    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.서울출장샵서울안마방 청소년↺서울안마방 리뷰♧〈서울흥출장안마〉서울진주 오피►서울왕십리 마사지╛서울판교 마사지✪서울안마방 몰카 토렌트↪울산출장안마예약금없는출장샵서울모텔 걸➛서울서울 안마방♨﹛서울조건 만남 카페﹜서울타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ◤서울sod 마사지➺서울안마방 몰카 tumblr┣서울카오산로드 마사지♯서울출장샵전라남도안마방 강남서울미아 안마방☎서울주갤 안마방─〈서울실제 일본 안마방〉서울마사지 동영상┊서울정선 마사지﹌서울코 마사지 효과┯서울안양 안마방 후기ω서울러시아 밤문화χ서울안마방 중독►『서울안마사 자격증』서울모란 안마방“서울안마방 홈런╅서울콜걸 후기▒서울출장업소☝서울안산 고잔동 마사지▄서울크리스마스 안마방◄【서울천안 출장 마사지】서울전립선 마사지 부작용╓서울출장가격↮서울커플 마사지 방법♖서울동네 마사지ェ서울타이마사지 팁 서비스☞서울안마방 못쌈➹【서울향남 마사지】서울별내 마사지⇁서울미시 마사지⇛서울마사지 성추행➛서울군산 터미널 모텔♮예약금없는출장샵거창마사지 망가예약서울정선 사북 마사지┅서울순천 마사지♦【서울안마방 촬영】서울성남 마사지¤서울소라넷 안마방↕서울출장업소↘서울후불제 출장샵コ서울출장샵서울출장샵전주출장샵서울출장 선입금서울안마방 영업시간서울러시아 마사지서울포항 안마방서울출장샵서울안마방 24시간⇏서울성내동 안마방☏『서울수원 마사지』서울천호동 마사지◐서울안마방 커뮤니티★서울길동 마사지╮서울강릉 타이 마사지➻옥천출장오피

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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