담양출장안마☎예약금없는출장샵-담양안마방 알바 단속(담양타이 아로마 마사지)┰‹담양출장오피›┠담양콜걸╩담양이천 안마방◥담양연신내 안마방⇙담양석남동 안마방λ담양고딩 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

구미출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

담양출장안마♞출장부르는법♠담양안마방 알바 단속(담양계룡 안마방)➛‹담양안마방 아가씨›☼담양안마방 시스템﹌담양안마방 오랄➚담양방콕 마사지 추천▶담양아로마 마사지 부작용✉담양오사카 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 마산얼굴 경락 마사지 방법 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

담양출장안마❤예약⇠담양안마방 알바 단속(담양태국 전립선 마사지)ノ‹담양스킨쉽 마사지›ク담양대딸 마사지✔담양등 마사지 방법☲담양자카르타 마사지↹담양태릉입구역 안마방┆담양안마방 오픈시간

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

담양출장안마┏출장부르는법υ담양안마방 알바 단속(담양서산시 안마방)♂‹담양하노이 마사지›ⓛ담양심장 마사지↸담양속초 모텔 추천タ담양괌 마사지✈담양간석동 안마방♩담양안마방 ssul

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

담양출장안마ⓔ예약금없는출장샵↨담양안마방 알바 단속(담양거제 안마방)⇔‹담양아산 출장 만남›✙담양삼산동 마사지✓담양남성전용⇢담양부산 연산동 안마방╯담양진주 오피➺담양동대문 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 하남강동구 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

담양출장안마⇜출장부르는법♨담양안마방 알바 단속(담양영종도 마사지)┖‹담양중국 마사지 체험기›×담양마사지 샤워기┗담양마사지 구분◦담양안마방 체크카드☻담양예약금 없는 출장 샵➼담양중국전통마사지 팁

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 수원출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

담양출장안마담양안마방 밥

  • 고성구미 모텔 가격
  • 담양에스테틱 마사지
  • 담양출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    담양출장안마ロ24시출장샵.담양안마방 알바 단속(담양수내 마사지)ケ‹담양방이동 안마방›♨담양전주 타이 마사지┾담양서귀포 마사지╙담양산본 마사지☼담양라페 안마방╗담양안마방 체크카드

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 고성안마방 여자친구 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 전주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    jub.xyz
    부천천안 립 온라인카지노 홍성안마방 어플
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 원주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    담양출장안마✌예약금없는출장샵┶담양안마방 알바 단속(담양모텔 걸)☀‹담양원주 마사지›✖담양타이마사지 팁 서비스⇦담양마사지 롤러⇁담양정관 마사지♤담양모텔 콜♥담양세부 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 청양안마방 할머니 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    담양출장안마┞예약♧담양안마방 알바 단속(담양안마방 첫경험)∷‹담양마사지 샤워기›✓담양기획 마사지☶담양해피 오렌지 출장 샵✕담양video.fc2.com 마사지♥담양태국 마사지 후기➼담양에로틱 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 바카라사이트 .

    고성코타키나발루 마사지
    연천세종시 안마방 천안출장샵 밀양라오스 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    담양출장안마▩예약금없는출장샵‿담양안마방 알바 단속(담양일반인 마사지 torrent)►‹담양안마방 추천›ト담양의정부 안마방W담양덕계 마사지╔담양출장서비스↛담양항문 마사지♠담양괌 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    담양출장안마┕출장부르는법♀담양안마방 알바 단속(담양명동 마사지)◥‹담양상봉 안마방›▨담양안마방 sex☒담양인덕원 마사지⇁담양사이판 마사지☀담양동대구역 근처 모텔╮담양에가오 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 논산구미 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    담양출장안마╘24시출장샵↤담양안마방 알바 단속(담양마사지 섹스)✍‹담양마사지 텀블러›◘담양정선 사북 마사지♦담양안중 마사지“담양출장만족보장✿담양후두 마사지⊥담양노포 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    담양출장안마♡출장부르는법★담양안마방 알바 단속(담양타이마사지 팁 서비스)☀‹담양전립선 마사지 야동›↔담양서현역 안마방▣담양구미 모텔 가격➶담양안마방 20살ホ담양50대 안마방┧담양광명 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 진주전기 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The loveganghwa.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 온라인카지노 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 포천순천 중국 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 구미출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    담양출장안마コ출장부르는법⇩담양안마방 알바 단속(담양음부 마사지)♝‹담양여주 안마방›♯담양하남 마사지♈담양부산 마사지 추천⇆담양부산 출장↔담양출장맛사지⇟담양서울 출장 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, webdesigners.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: bein.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 군산출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    담양출장안마♡24시출장샵▧담양안마방 알바 단속(담양안마방 발기)ユ‹담양안마방 러시아›┣담양안마방 태국✙담양여관 아가씨☢담양안성 안마방☶담양씨엠립 마사지╓담양야탑 마사지 후기

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    곡성천안 만남
    jasonboy.xyz 칠곡제주 안마방 카지노사이트.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    담양출장안마╬출장부르는법♫담양안마방 알바 단속(담양안마방 얼마냐)エ‹담양상록수역 안마방›➥담양서양 안마방┱담양안마방 움짤☺담양사상구 마사지“담양에가오 마사지☺담양안마방 카드

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.담양출장안마담양구글 재펜♖담양안양 마사지⇋‹담양군대 안마방›담양마사지 야동 토렌트╘담양텔레그램 야동♔담양대구 모텔 아가씨╗담양부산 타이 마사지✆카지노사이트예약담양안마방 사정↪담양종로 안마방▥﹛담양대전 유성 안마방﹜담양크라운제이 안마방△담양간석동 안마방►담양두정동 마사지✡담양거제도 안마방ヨ담양출장안마영광장애인 안마방담양마사지 알바♐담양호텔식 마사지╣〖담양로드샵 단속〗담양용현동 마사지↔담양신림 안마방►담양안마방 ㅇㄷ➴담양대구 마사지 추천ラ담양태국 마사지 서비스╜담양석계역 안마방◑(담양호텔 걸)담양젖몸살 마사지╊담양안마방 오랄⇔담양안마방 썰☆담양부부 마사지♟담양센슈얼 마사지↶담양구의 안마방◣《담양베트남 하노이 마사지》담양순천 중국 마사지∴담양광대뼈 축소 마사지↕담양헬로 마사지☒담양기획 마사지┶담양서울 안마방 추천⇛담양마사지 섹스◐(담양출장안마야한곳)담양경찰 안마방╝담양신데렐라 안마방サ담양블라디보스톡 마사지ル담양덕천동 마사지π출장부르는법남양주안마방 하드예약담양여관 녀↹담양아프리카 마사지➴‹담양남성전용›담양호텔식 마사지┊담양남포동 안마방✙담양fc2 오일 마사지☁담양송탄 마사지☪담양출장안마담양출장안마구미출장안마담양구리 마사지담양질 마사지담양안마방 모음담양부평 마사지 샵담양출장안마담양신천 모텔 추천┵담양태국 전통 마사지 단속↺‹담양최음 마사지›담양동탄 마사지 후기▷담양일본 마사지 품번█담양안산 마사지 추천♮담양안마방 후기✐아산일본 마사지 노모

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics